A new rapid test for tuberculosis (TB) could substantially and cost-effectively reduce TB deaths and improve treatment in southern Africa — a region where both HIV and tuberculosis are common — according to a new study by Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) researchers.“This test is one of the most significant developments in TB control options in many years,” said lead author Nicolas Menzies, a Ph.D. candidate in health policy working at HSPH. “Our study is the first to look at the long-term consequences of this test when incorporated into routine health programs.”The study appears online in PLOS Medicine after 5 p.m. today.Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that kills more than 1.5 million people annually — primarily in low- and middle-income countries. An estimated 9 million people developed the disease in 2010. HIV-infected patients are particularly vulnerable to TB, which is spread through airborne droplets when people with active disease cough or sneeze.Rapid and accurate diagnosis is key to preventing the spread of the disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) recently recommended the use of Xpert, an automated DNA test that can show a result within two hours, for people at high risk of multi-drug-resistant TB and/or HIV-associated TB. Many countries are already moving to adopt the test.Menzies, senior author and professor of global health at HSPH Joshua Salomon, and colleagues conducted a modeling study to investigate the potential health and economic consequences of implementing the Xpert test in Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland. They found that replacing the current diagnostic approach (which relies on identifying TB in patient’s sputum using a microscope) with one based on the Xpert test would prevent an estimated 132,000 TB cases and 182,000 TB deaths in southern Africa over 10 years, reducing by 28 percent the proportion of the population with active TB.The researchers estimated that the cost of widespread implementation of the Xpert test in southern Africa would be $460 million over the next 10 years, with the majority of these additional costs arising from increased utilization of TB and HIV treatment services. In particular, as the new test provides information on TB drug resistance, many more patients would be referred for treatment of multi-drug-resistant TB, which is expensive in this setting. The additional HIV treatment costs are a result of the success of the intervention — as individuals co-infected with TB and HIV receive better TB care, their survival improves, increasing the total number of people receiving HIV treatment.Taking into account both the additional costs and the health benefits from use of the new technology, adoption of the Xpert test in southern Africa would be a good value for the money, according to WHO standards. The researchers found that the cost per year of healthy life gained from adopting the new test ranged from $792 in Swaziland to $1,257 in Botswana. While these results suggest that scaling up Xpert can be a good health investment, the cost per healthy year gained is substantially higher in this study than in previous reports, and the economic results raise questions about affordability that will be critical for policymakers to consider.Menzies also cautioned that the study’s findings may not be applicable elsewhere, and that other countries may find more cost-effective interventions than Xpert to adopt first. “Given the fundamental influence of HIV on TB dynamics and intervention costs, care should be taken when interpreting the results of this analysis outside of settings with high HIV prevalence,” he said.Support for the study was provided in part by UNITAID and a training grant from the Harvard-affiliated Massachusetts General Hospital’s Program in Cancer Outcomes and Training.
See it!Get the AvoDovA Women ‘s Christmas Furry Sweaters for $23, available at Amazon! Please note, prices are accurate at the date of publication, November 16, 2020, but are subject to change.This Simple Striped SweaterTipsy Elves Women’s Stylish Christmas Sweaters Amazon- Advertisement – Even though the Christmas tree is decked out in sequins and super glitzy, the rest of the sweater keeps it simple — which totally balances out the look. See it!Get the Tipsy Elves Women’s Stylish Christmas Sweaters for $50, available at Amazon! Please note, prices are accurate at the date of publication, November 16, 2020, but are subject to change.This Off-the-Shoulder SweaterLILBETTER Women’s Off Shoulder Sweater Boat Neck Long Sleeve Loose Knit Jumper AmazonAt first glance, you may think that the classic pattern on this sweater isn’t the most stylish — but the fact that it’s off-the-shoulder completely elevates it! 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See it!Get the Jayde N’ Grey Women’s Reindeer Rudolph Christmas Top for prices starting at $27, available at Amazon! Please note, prices are accurate at the date of publication, November 16, 2020, but are subject to change.Funny Ugly Christmas SweatersThis Disney-Themed SweaterDisney Women’s Ugly Christmas Sweater AmazonDisney fans will get such a kick out of these Christmas sweaters! Right now, you can pick up a Mickey and Minnie Santa edition, an Ariel version or even a Nightmare Before Christmas-themed sweater. Our favorite sweater features Olaf from Frozen — too adorable! See it!Get the Disney Women’s Ugly Christmas Sweater for prices starting at $20, available at Amazon! Please note, prices are accurate at the date of publication, November 16, 2020, but are subject to change.This Laugh-Out-Loud Viral SweaterTipsy Elves Women’s Break The Internet Ugly Christmas Sweater AmazonSo, remember that time Kim Kardashian broke the internet with her infamous Paper Magazine cover back in November 2014? Now, Santa and his derrière are getting the chance to shine thanks to this Christmas sweater. Bottoms up! See it!Get the Tipsy Elves Women’s Break The Internet Ugly Christmas Sweater for $40, available at Amazon! Please note, prices are accurate at the date of publication, November 16, 2020, but are subject to change.This Pop Culture Sweaterv28 Women’s Patterns Christmas Sweater AmazonAny pop culture aficionado will immediately understand the film reference here! If you’re as obsessed with Home Alone as we are, then this is the sweater for you. See it!Get the v28 Women’s Patterns Christmas Sweater for prices starting at $15, available at Amazon! Please note, prices are accurate at the date of publication, November 16, 2020, but are subject to change.This Rudolph SweaterJOYIN Women’s LED Light Up Reindeer Ugly Christmas Sweater AmazonThis sweater is funky and fabulous! The string lights actually work using mini LED bulbs, and Rudolph’s red nose even lights up too! See it!Get the JOYIN Women’s LED Light Up Reindeer Ugly Christmas Sweater for prices starting at $25, available at Amazon! Please note, prices are accurate at the date of publication, November 16, 2020, but are subject to change.This Cheeky SweaterTipsy Elves Women’s Light Up Christmas Sweater AmazonJust like the last sweater, this bad boy lights up. Any millennial or Gen Z-er will get a kick out of this one! See it!Get the Tipsy Elves Women’s Light Up Christmas Sweater for $50, available at Amazon! Please note, prices are accurate at the date of publication, November 16, 2020, but are subject to change.Check out more of our picks and deals here!This post is brought to you by Us Weekly’s Shop With Us team. The Shop With Us team aims to highlight products and services our readers might find interesting and useful, such as face masks, self tanners, Lululemon-style leggings and all the best gifts for everyone in your life. Product and service selection, however, is in no way intended to constitute an endorsement by either Us Weekly or of any celebrity mentioned in the post.The Shop With Us team may receive products free of charge from manufacturers to test. In addition, Us Weekly receives compensation from the manufacturer of the products we write about when you click on a link and then purchase the product featured in an article. This does not drive our decision as to whether or not a product or service is featured or recommended. Shop With Us operates independently from advertising sales team. We welcome your feedback at [email protected] Happy shopping! Us Weekly has affiliate partnerships so we may receive compensation for some links to products and services.There are so many ways to get into the spirit of the season, but a classic holiday sweater is at the top of the list! Ugly Christmas sweaters were once something to scoff at — we all remember that iconic scene in Bridget Jones’s Diary! But ever since Mark Darcy rocked his reindeer jumper with pride, they have become trophy pieces — in fact, some people organize entire gatherings centered around these witty knits.- Advertisement – – Advertisement – In recent years, it’s been all about wearing “ugly” holiday sweaters ironically and having fun with it. As far as we’re concerned, the more over-the-top, the better. ‘Tis the season, after all! If you’re looking to upgrade your festive fashion this year and embrace the trendiest novelty item of the season, we’ve rounded up our top holiday sweater picks below. Oh, and if you’re scared of crossing over into full fugly territory, there are still plenty of stylish options to order now.Most Stylish Christmas SweatersThis Fuzzy Santa SweaterAvoDovA Women ‘s Christmas Furry Sweaters AmazonSeriously, how adorable is this sweater? We’re obsessed with the fuzzy Santa graphics sprinkled throughout the garment, and how great they look against the sweater’s light pink hue.- Advertisement –
Flanagan fired in a fine finish for his first Liverpool goal as the Reds thumped Tottenham 5-0 at White Hart Lane on Sunday, a result which brought about the sacking of Spurs boss Andre Villas-Boas. Captain Luis Suarez scored twice and had a hand in Liverpool’s three other goals. Press Association The Uruguay forward and Jordan Henderson drew lavish praise from their manager, but Rodgers also found time to pay tribute to 20-year-old defender Flanagan. Rodgers had looked to send the homegrown youngster on loan for experience, but admitted he changed his mind after Flanagan’s eye-catching performance in the 3-3 derby draw with Everton last month. Rodgers said: “Only one club has come in for him on loan, a club in League One. “He’s a terrific boy that has played for the under-21s, in practice games with about two people watching. “And whoever he’s up against, he doesn’t change. I thought when he came in for a few games this was a kid that can handle it. “And since he came in and played in the derby, where he was man of the match against Everton, he’s been fantastic. “His confidence has grown and grown over time. “A young player like that, probably a couple of years ago, might not have had a chance. “Or maybe someone comes in, does well for a few games then drifts away. “So I’ve said to him, ‘just play every game as if you haven’t cracked it, go out and be the best you can be’, and that’s what he’s done. “His goal was a brilliant finish. I’m delighted for him, he’s a real good boy and you can see how much it means for him and the supporters.” Liverpool’s victory at Spurs pushed them up to second in the Premier League table, but Rodgers was quick to play down any talk of a title tilt this term. He said: “We’re not even thinking about that to be honest. We’re working on our style of football going forward. “You can be looking to finish fourth, or third or second, but eventually you want to be winning the league. “The year before I came it was eighth, then last season we finished seventh. “But realistically we just have to keep fighting. You look at the depths of some of the squads. “If we can keep continuing to improve our football, let’s just see where that takes us.” Jon Flanagan is fast proving his Barclays Premier League pedigree, according to Liverpool manager Brendan Rodgers.