Deer muscle transmits prion disease to altered mice

first_imgJan 31, 2006 (CIDRAP News) – Meat from deer infected with chronic wasting disease (CWD) has been shown to transmit the prion disease to genetically altered mice, according to a report published Jan 26 in Sciencexpress, part of Science magazine.The experimental findings “raise the possibility that dietary exposure to prions might occur through meat consumption,” writes researcher Glenn Telling at the University of Kentucky, along with six other colleagues.CWD, a rare brain-wasting disease that affects deer, elk, and moose in parts of North America, is similar to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), or mad cow disease. It has not been known to infect humans, and the skeletal muscle meat from deer and elk was not previously believed to contain infective levels of abnormal prion protein. However, state game agencies now advise hunters to take precautions when handling carcasses, and some states test harvested animals for CWD.”The emergence of CWD in an increasingly wide geographic area and the interspecies transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to humans as variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (vCJD) have raised concerns about zoonotic transmission of CWD,” Telling and colleagues write.”We don’t know if people will develop a human prion disease as a result of exposure to CWD but we know people developed prion disease as result of exposure to BSE,” Telling said in a Reuters news service story Jan 27. “Obviously the most likely route of exposure would be via meat, and that is why we addressed this.””It’s difficult to predict how prions will behave when they cross species barriers,” Telling told Reuters.To test the infectivity of skeletal muscle, the researchers used specially adapted mice that expressed cervid prion protein (CerPrP), which made them susceptible to CWD. Groups of these mice were inoculated intracerebrally with extracts of leg muscle from either CWD-infected or CWD-free mule deer, while other mice were inoculated with central nervous system (CNS) materials from both infected and uninfected deer.The researchers found that all skeletal muscle samples from infected deer led to the progressive mental dysfunction associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), with mean incubation times ranging from 360 to roughly 490 days. The incubation period after infection with CNS material was shorter, from about 230 to 280 days.The skeletal muscle and brain tissue from uninfected deer didn’t cause disease in the special mice.The researchers note that similar studies involving skeletal muscle from BSE-infected cattle failed to show such high levels of prion infectivity. The study also shows that prion levels were lower in muscle than in the CNS and that the muscle prion levels may vary. Studies to assess the prion titers are under way, the authors write.The report says the risk of CWD infection following consumption is reduced by relatively inefficient prion transmission, but that the findings show the muscle tissue most likely to be consumed by humans is a significant source of prion infectivity.”Humans consuming or handling meat from CWD-infected deer are therefore at risk to prion exposure,” the report concludes.Both the findings and the methodology of the study are significant, said Srinand Sreevatsan, DVM, MPH, PhD, an associate professor in the University of Minnesota’s Department of Veterinary Population Medicine.The presence and infectivity of CWD prion in muscle hasn’t been demonstrated with a bioassay before, Sreevatsan told CIDRAP News. The bioassay allows researchers to know if the misfolded prions are present and if they are capable of causing the disease in an animal model. “It’s only now that we are realizing the sensitive assays we can use.””The presence of infectivity in the muscle tissue in CWD does raise some issues. That it’s there and it is infectious is a concern,” he said, but added that it is important to do a risk assessment as well. “Is it present in enough quantity to be of public health significance? We don’t know. That needs to be determined.””It may not be in sufficient quantities to cause infection [if people consume it],” he added.Telling G, Angers R, Browning S, et al. Prions in skeletal muscles of deer with chronic wasting disease. Sciencexpress 2006 Jan 26 (early online publication) [Abstract]See also:Oct 26, 2005, CIDRAP News story “Chronic wasting disease found in moose”Institute of Food Technologists scientific summary report “Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies,” published Jun 2005last_img read more

Rotation depth gives Syracuse men’s basketball plenty of lineup options this season

first_img Facebook Twitter Google+ Boeheim likely tries leaning on his key cogs from last year while slowly incorporating his new assets. Roberson, Lydon and Coleman are near-locks to start, while White, Howard, Gillon and Battle could shuffle in and out of the starting five. With the number of players receiving significant minutes this year, the starting lineup could be a moot point.Boeheim has led on that SU’s depth will allow for “some more things” to happen on the floor. Topping that list is the press, which Syracuse has been reluctant to lean on. But the change of pace is what jolted the Orange past Gonzaga and Virginia in the NCAA Tournament, and now Boeheim has the personnel to afford supercharging his defense more often.Someone like Gillon, for example, a 6-foot speedster who moves as quick as anyone on the team, could enter for a short period to spearhead the press and then be swapped out for Howard at point guard. The permutations, at least on paper, allow the Orange to have several situation-oriented lineups.“You never know when you’re going to need (the press),” Boeheim said. “…We work on it every day for a reason, and sometimes it can be the difference in a game.”Of course, it’s just as plausible things don’t pan out exactly how players, fans or coaches imagine they could before the season tips off. One of the freshmen, likely Moyer more so than Thompson or Battle, could redshirt this year. Chukwu might not dazzle immediately in his 7-foot-2 frame after sitting out for a year.Gillon and White are no locks to perform the same as they did in their inferior conferences. In fact, Boeheim said he didn’t expect White to be the same player — one who led Nebraska in points and rebounds per game — with Syracuse.The puzzle will fit together somehow, and there’s only one absolute truth about it: It has plenty of pieces. Comments Published on October 28, 2016 at 7:26 pm Contact Connor: [email protected] | @connorgrossmancenter_img Editor’s note: With Syracuse’s first exhibition coming up on Nov. 1, this is the second installment of a five-part series analyzing the most interesting questions surrounding the Orange entering the season. Read the rest of the series, here.When Malachi Richardson closed the door on his college career, foregoing three years of eligibility to roll the dice on life in the NBA, he inadvertently opened new opportunities for Syracuse.Andrew White bolted from Nebraska. In came John Gillon from Colorado State. A trio of dynamic freshmen already awaited the two fifth-year seniors, stacking SU’s deck at nine, or possibly even 10 players deep. Jim Boeheim made no secret about it: If Richardson stayed, White and Gillon wouldn’t be suiting up for their final seasons with the Orange.But Richardson took the plunge, and now Syracuse is looking deeper than it has in years.“Everybody brings something new to the table,” Tyler Roberson said at Atlantic Coast Conference media day on Wednesday. “I think when (the reserves) do get in it’ll throw teams off because we haven’t had this much depth in past years.”AdvertisementThis is placeholder textRoberson would know. He and Dajuan Coleman are the only two seniors on the roster to spend their entire career with SU. Gillon and White are imports, sophomore Paschal Chukwu redshirted last season, Frank Howard played sparingly as a freshman and Tyus Battle, Matthew Moyer and Taurean Thompson are at the infancy of their collegiate careers. Tyler Lydon is the biggest holdover from last season’s rotation that will figure into this year’s.He, along with Roberson and Coleman, comprised half of the Orange’s six-man rotation in 2015-16 that played 6,933 of the SU’s 7,475 minutes. That’s five starters and one bench player accounting for 93 percent of a Final Four team’s minutes, somewhat of a mind-boggling concept. But this year the lineup options are plentiful, and couldn’t read any more different than what Syracuse deployed six months ago.“We’ve never put five new guys in one year … that actually played a lot, which will happen this year,” Boeheim said at SU’s media day on Oct. 21. “… We have people at every position, a couple guys at every position, which we haven’t had in a long time.”last_img read more