Evolutionary temperature adaptation and the calcium regulation of fish actomyosin ATPases

first_imgActomyosins have been isolated from the white skeletal muscles of fish inhabiting thermal environments with characteristically low seasonal temperature variations for example, Antarctica, arctic rivers and the equatorial oceans. Calcium regulation of actomyosin ATPase was correlated with environmental temperature. Increased assay temperature resulted in a progressive loss of calcium sensitivity. This occurred at lower temperatures in the more cold adapted species. In general cold adapted ATPases have lower activation enthalpies (ΔH‡) and higher activities at low temperatures than their tropical counterparts. In contrast to environmental temperature acclimation (Johnston, 1979) calcium regulatory proteins of stenothermal species were not directly involved in the temperature adaptation of actomyosins. Similar relationships were obtained between environmental temperature and thermodynamic activation parameters for both natural and desensitized actomyosins from which tropomyosin and troponins had been removed. Instead, evidence is presented that the mechanism of temperature adaptation over evolutionary time periods involves selective modifications in the structure of both the heavy and light chains of myosin.last_img read more

German frigate FGS Bayern becomes Op Atalanta flagship

first_imgBack to overview,Home naval-today German frigate becomes Op Atalanta flagship Authorities View post tag: German Navy View post tag: Op Atalanta German frigate becomes Op Atalanta flagship View post tag: EUNAVFORcenter_img German Navy’s Brandenburg-class frigate FGS Bayern will depart Naval Base Wilhelmshaven on March 7 to take part in the EUNAVFOR Operation Atalanta off the Horn of Africa.Led by Rear Admiral Jan Christian Kaack, the frigate will replace the Italian Navy’s FREMM frigate ITS Carabiniere as the mission flagship.FGS Bayern will also take the place of another German ship, the frigate Erfurt, which has been the German contribution to the operation since August 2015.FGS Bayern’s Commander is confident that his crew will master the tasks ahead of them, as they did in 2015 when they were deployed to the same mission.“The ship and its crew will contribute to keeping the shipping routes safe. With an active presence and professional conduct, the Bayern will provide a visible strengthening of the German leadership of the EUNAVFOR Somalia operation. My experienced crew is looking forward to the deployment and new challenges,” the Rear Admiral said.The ship’s crew is expected to return to Wilhelmshaven, Germany, in August 2016. March 4, 2016 View post tag: FGS Bayern Share this articlelast_img read more

The sandwich bites back

first_imgReaders, please picture the following scene – with the caveat that it’s not for the faint-hearted, and British Baker cannot be held responsible for any tears which might be shed: “We found an outstanding sandwich shop in the centre of Leeds. The woman was actually cutting the chicken off the bone. It was hot and she was putting it into the sandwich. She was cutting the avocado fresh. It was emotional.”Emotional, indeed! Who could not be moved by such an image? If ever an ambassador were needed to talk-up why bakery retailers should stop their ceaseless stampede towards “value-engineered” sandwiches – meaning cheapo eats – then they should hunt down “female, Leeds, children 0-5, BC1″, who was quoted in market research firm IGD’s new food-to-go report.The price war in food-to-go sandwiches has affected everyone, with the formerly premium-loving Pret offering a sandwich range all priced under £2.50, Greggs’ price point shifting down to 99p, and Subway launching low entry-point snacks such as cheese toasties. But as the market downshifts, there is a real danger that innovation in the sector has been stifled, and consumers will get bored, says British Sandwich Association director Jim Winship.”There has been a knee-jerk reaction to recession,” he says. “Yes, you’ve got to have a low-cost range of sandwiches, but if you over-promote that, you can fulfil your own prophecy. Our data suggests people aren’t that price-sensitive when it comes to sandwiches. There’s little evidence to suggest that premium sandwiches have taken a dip in sales, other than the fact that retailers have reduced their ranges, which distorts the picture anyway.” The danger is that sandwiches become devalued, he adds.Sandwich consultant Jesper Toft of Sandwich International agrees, citing the pizza price war of the 90s, where “everybody forgot to make any money and it never really recovered. It’s seen as a cheap and tacky food whereas before, the perception was higher,” he warns.”There are certain people who will respond to cheaper sandwiches, but there aren’t that many of them, and you can’t push the whole market towards them. The trouble is, if you drop the price, you’re not going to sell two sandwiches to somebody – you’re still only going to sell them one! There’s a danger that the market could go too far, where everybody is trying to put 99p sandwiches out, and there’s no real need for that. In fact, people in work probably have more money than they did last year, as a result of cheaper mortgages.”Innovation versus priceThe logic is that as expense accounts are cut, higher earners “slum it” with a Pret; some Pret consumers trade down to M&S; and M&S sees some value trade slipping away to Greggs. “I think we’ve bottomed out now,” says food consultant Nellie Nichols. In fact, the former Pret sandwich guru says NPD work in the industry is now shifting back up to mid-tier price points – which satisfy both ends of the market – as consumers tire of zero-bells-and-whistles sarnies.”The cost-engineered products are very dull and their shelf-life from a popularity point of view is limited,” she says. “People are going to start looking for more innovative products – and I can see that coming through in the work that I’m doing. How often can you eat a £1 sandwich that is nothing more than two pieces of bread with some cheese in between? They’re out. They have been popular but their sales will start declining.”So there are opportunities for better price points with the right marketing. Georgina Wild of market research firm him! says that in order to counteract consumers switching towards making their own lunch, bakery retailers could offer a sandwich club – a loyalty scheme or offer with a meal deal – which can hold its own against the likes of M&S’s £2 sandwich-crisps-drink meal deal.”Our latest recession research shows consumers are going to be watching the pennies more closely – no surprise there – and that more of them will want meal deals, money-off vouchers and loyalty schemes.” Even the usually reluctant coffee shops are about to begin re-invigorating their sandwich offering with meal deals, such as Costa Coffee’s imminent lunchtime deal of any panini and a cappuccino for £4.95 – a trend which may yet catch on.”We have a number of initiatives across the year, each of which has been developed to drive a number of key measures for us such as brand perception, customer satisfaction, value for money and loyalty,” explains Costa’s head of food Beverley Phillips. “We will be investigating if and when we do run any further offers once we have reviewed the imminent panini and coffee deal.”Meanwhile, Kate Raison, marketing director at Bakehouse, says there is a huge untapped market for hand-held savoury pastries as an add-on to a lunchtime sandwich meal deal, such as cheese twists, which have proved popular in the supermarket lunchtime trade.Fresh is bestToft suggests focusing on freshness, health and flavour – through the use of more herbs, spices and superfoods – as a positive way to develop your range. During IGD’s focus groups, most consumers cited freshness and quality of sandwiches as being interlinked, with many seeking out high-quality ingredients.The Subway factor of course cannot be ignored. Now the biggest sandwich retailer in the UK, it’s hit upon a winning formula of freshness and meal deals, which bakery retailers can learn from and even better, by offering top-quality bread carriers, says Max Jenvey of food-to-go marketing consultants Oxxygen.”[Bakery retailers] need a few sandwiches around the low-price entry-point – classically, your egg mayo, your cheese and tomato, and more veg-filled products,” he says. “But what they should really be doing is driving value through quality of bread and ingredients. Consumers are increasingly looking for fresh-fill and baked-off bread, which is one of the reasons why Subway is dominating – that’s what’s driving the market.”And freshness means no YouTube videos of staff shoving salad up their nose, as recently afflicted poor Subway, which may be another “emotional” sandwich shop scene, but for all the wrong reasons.—-=== Him! asked coffee shop customers: ===== Q Do you plan to eat in or take away the sandwiches/baguettes/wraps you’ve bought here today? ==Sample size 349Eat in 72%Take away 22%Don’t know 7%What this means: the majority of customers want to eat their sandwich on the premises, so invest in good seating and create a clean, comfortable ambiance.== Q When you came in here today did you know exactly what you were going to buy? ==Sample size 1,014Yes 68%No 31%Don’t know 1%What this highlights: the importance of menus and staff to help make suggestions and up-sell products to a third of customers—-=== Him! conducted a study of shopping habits in a recession during March, and asked: ===== Q As a result of the current economic climate, will you be collecting money-saving vouchers and tokens more, the same or less over the next 12 months compared with last year? ==Study Avg Male FemaleSample size 1,017 488 529More 44% 38% 49%The same 49% 53% 45%Less 1% 2% 0%Not applicable 4% 5% 3%Don’t know 2% 2% 2%This shows: unsurprisingly, people are on the lookout for deals== Q As a result of the current economic climate, will you be joining shop loyalty card schemes more, the same or less in the next 12 months compared with the last year? ==Study Avg Male FemaleMore 24% 18% 30%The same 57% 57% 57%Less 5% 7% 3%Not applicable 10% 14% 7%Don’t know 4% 4% 4%What this suggests: a quarter of consumers, especially females, could be tempted away from their lunchbox with loyalty offers—-=== Speciality breads used in sandwiches are still on the up ===2004 2005 2006 2007 2008Sandwiches / takeaway breads (£m) 373 394 405 443 469Change year-on-year (%) n/a 5.6 2.8 9.4 5.9Source: Key Note Bread & Bakery, March 2009; note: shows UK household expenditure on speciality breads—-=== Which of the following do you often buy for lunch? ===All Female MaleTotal (200) (117) (83)Sandwiches 91% 90% 92%Crisps 31% 26% 39%Fruit 31% 32% 30%Salads 28% 30% 25%Chocolate 23% 22% 23%Savoury pastries such as Cornish pasties, sausage rolls or cheese twists 20% 11% 33%Soups 19% 18% 19%Ready meals 15% 13% 18%Sweet bakery products 14% 15% 12%—-=== How important is each of the following in encouraging you to buy lunch at a particular food outlet? ===All Female MaleTotal (200) (117) (83)Clear shelf labels 57% 63% 48%Fully stocked shelves 45% 53% 34%Money-off offers 44% 44% 43%Warm food options 42% 38% 47%Freshly baked options 41% 44% 36%Meal deals 33% 33% 33%Takeaway packaging 31% 27% 35%Vegetarian food options 15% 19% 10%—-=== Have your lunch buying habits changed recently? ===All Female MaleTotal (200) (117) (83)No 71% 68% 75%Yes – I buy lunch out a bit less often now 19% 20% 17%Yes – I still buy lunch out as often but look for deals and offers 10% 11% 7%Not stated / other 1% 1% 1%Source: Bakehouse independent research; 200 interviews were conducted anonymously by telephone over the period 25-30 March, 2009, from a sample drawn at random from office workers around the UK (who buy their lunch at least two to three times per week and not from a canteen)—-=== One in five who have meals-to-go are ’fanatics’ – purchasing them four or more times a week. They are more likely to be male, aged under 45 and currently working ===l More than half (56%) of food-to-go consumers decide where to purchase primarily on the freshness or quality of products.l 46% rate service as a key driver with a third rating quick service as key. Any model that combines fast service with customisation is well-placed to be popular.l Around one in three (31%) mention price as a key driver of store choice for food-to-go compared to 58% for their main shopping.l 47% of food-to-go consumers have economised due to the economic downturn, particularly women, those aged 25-44, and those in lower social groups.l 10% are more likely to stick to a set budget and 10 % are buying more multi-packs to save money on snacks.l Around seven in ten consumers who purchase either cold drinks, snacks, sandwiches, pies, pasties, sausage rolls, biscuits, cakes or pastries can be tempted to change their mind on what to purchase once inside the store.l Meal deals are generally popular among food-to-go consumers. Around a third (36%) of food-to-go consumers purchase meals including snacks and drinks.l Around a quarter (23%) think less about eating or drinking healthily when buying food or drink to consume on-the-go than when they are eating at home. Source: IGDlast_img read more

Eric Clapton Releases Pro-Shot Video With Derek Trucks, Doyle Bramhall II, and Steve Jordan [Watch]

first_imgEric Clapton is releasing a double live album Live In San Diego (with Special Guest JJ Cale) next week. Leading up to the release, the guitar-shredding songwriter has released a video with pro-shot footage from the concert, which took place on March 15, 2007 at San Diego’s Ipayone Center.The video features top-shelf guitarists Derek Trucks and Doyle Bramhall II, and drummer Steve Jordan on an incredible version of the Clapton original, “Tell The Truth”. The concert also featured special guest performances from J. J. Cale and Robert Cray. The live album will be released in full next Friday, September 30th.Watch the video below:[H/T Jambase]last_img

Greensky Bluegrass, Yonder Mountain String Band, & More Gather In Tahoe For WinterWonderGrass [Photos]

first_imgThis weekend, a bevy of bluegrass heroes took over Squaw Valley, California for Tahoe’s WinterWonderGrass Festival. The three day event featured headlining spots from Greensky Bluegrass, Yonder Mountain String Band, Leftover Salmon, and The Infamous Stringdusters. There were also exciting performances from Sam Bush Band, Peter Rowan, Hot Buttered Rum, Fruition, Dead Winter Carpenters, Mandolin Orange, Dustbowl Revival, and so many more.It was a weekend of music, brews, and mountains, and luckily photographer Chris Baldwin was on site to capture the beauty. Check out the full gallery below! Load remaining imageslast_img

A fuller picture of cancer

first_imgThey’re among the most powerful tools for shedding new light on cancer growth and evolution, but mathematical models of the disease for years have faced an either/or stand-off.Though models have been developed that capture the spatial aspects of tumors, those models typically don’t study genetic changes. Non-spatial models, meanwhile, more accurately portray tumors’ evolution, but not their three-dimensional structure.A collaboration among Harvard, Edinburgh, and Johns Hopkins Universities including Martin Nowak, director of the Program for Evolutionary Dynamics and a professor of mathematics and of biology at Harvard, has now developed the first model of solid tumors that reflects both their three-dimensional shape and genetic evolution. The new model explains why cancer cells have a surprising number of genetic mutations in common, how driver mutations spread through the whole tumor, and how drug resistance evolves. The study is described in an Aug. 26 paper in Nature.“Previously, we and others have mostly used non-spatial models to study cancer evolution,” Nowak said. “But those models do not describe the spatial characteristics of solid tumors. Now, for the first time, we have a computational model that can do that.”A key insight of the new model, Nowak said, is the ability for cells to migrate locally.Spatial model of solid tumor evolution Images and videos generated by Bartek Waclaw. “Cellular mobility makes cancers grow fast, and it makes cancers homogenous in the sense that cancer cells share a common set of mutations. It is responsible for the rapid evolution of drug resistance,” Nowak said. “I further believe that the ability to form metastases, which is what actually kills patients, is a consequence of selection for local migration.”Nowak and colleagues, including Bartek Waclaw of the University of Edinburgh, who is the first author of the study, and Ivana Bozic of Harvard University and Bert Vogelstein of Johns Hopkins University, set out to improve on past models, because they were unable to answer critical questions about the spatial architecture of genetic evolution.“The majority of the mathematical models in the past counted the number of cells that have particular mutations, but not their spatial arrangement,” Nowak said. Understanding that spatial structure is important, he said, because it plays a key role in how tumors grow and evolve.In a spatial model cells divide only if they have the space to do so. This results in slow growth unless cells can migrate locally.“By giving cells the ability to migrate locally,” Nowak said, “individual cells can always find new space where they can divide.The result isn’t just faster tumor growth, but a model that helps explain why cancer cells share an unusually high number of genetic mutations, and how drug resistance can rapidly evolve in tumors.As they divide, all cells — both healthy and cancerous — accumulate mutations, Nowak said, and most are so called “passenger” mutations that have little effect on the cell.In cancer cells, however, approximately 5 percent are what scientists call “driver” mutations — changes that allow cells to divide faster or live longer. In addition to rapid tumor growth, those mutations carry some previous passenger mutations forward, and as a result cancer cells often have a surprising number of mutations in common.Similarly, drug resistance emerges when cells mutate to become resistant to a particular treatment. While targeted therapies wipe out nearly all other cells, the few resistant cells begin to quickly replicate, causing a relapse of the cancer.“This migration ability helps to explain how driver mutations are able to dominate a tumor, and also why targeted therapies fail within a few months as resistance evolves,” Nowak said. “So what we have is a computer model for solid tumors, and it’s this local migration that is of crucial importance.”“Our approach does not provide a miraculous cure for cancer,” said Waclaw. “However, it suggests possible ways of improving cancer therapy. One of them could be targeting cellular motility [local migration] and not just growth as standard therapies do.”last_img read more

Group requests addition of student rep.

first_imgIn addition to hearing student body president Grant Schmidt’s final State of the Student Union address, Student Senate discussed and unanimously passed a resolution during its Thursday night meeting.The resolution called for the addition of a student leader in the decision process of the Commencement speaker. University Affairs chair Jeff Lakusta proposed the resolution.Lakusta said the student would be present on the committee offer the student body’s opinion.“So there can be a form of input, but it’s not the hammer or anything,” Lakusta said. Student body vice president Cynthia Weber also said the resolution was important because Commencement is an integral part of the graduation ceremonies.“Especially for the seniors, it’s the center of Commencement,” Weber said. “It becomes something that represents the entire University.”last_img read more

Students seek peace at the Grotto

first_imgA man in an electric wheelchair rolls up to the Grotto of Our Lady of Lourdes in silence, lights a candle and leaves.An elderly woman rests on a bench, engaged in conversation with a middle-aged companion.A couple prays side by side on the kneeler as two young kids fidget next to them. On one of the first sunny afternoons after a long winter, Notre Dame’s shrine to the Virgin Mary has come alive.For some students, such as freshman Laura Bobich, the Grotto is a place to reflect on their days, gain a sense of perspective and seek peace.  Allison D’Ambrosia | The Observer “Last week, I was very stressed out. I came out of my class right before and was very overwhelmed, couldn’t even think straight about all the stuff I felt like I had to do,” Bobich said. “And I stayed here for probably 10 minutes, and by the time I was leaving, I was so calm, so cool and collected. … I could go through my day more systematically, and I was no longer overwhelmed.” Each trip to the Grotto has a slightly different purpose for senior Mara Stolee. What remains constant, she said, is the site’s ability to minimize distractions and to facilitate wholehearted prayer.“I didn’t really know how often I was going to come [to the Grotto] when I first came [to Notre Dame],” Stolee said. “But when I was a freshman, a senior in my dorm told me that I should just go to the Grotto whenever, because the whole world makes more sense there. And I think that’s probably true.”  Solitude and solidarityAs a place for students to visit both on their own and with others, the Grotto means something different to each person, junior Anthony Barrett said. “I’ve been here for a bunch of different reasons. I’ve been here after a friend’s dad died, I’ve been here with people who are suicidal, I’ve been here with a group of 100 band kids who are getting together to celebrate our faith,” Barrett said. “And in each one of those circumstances, it takes on a different role, but it’s always a very special place where people can go by themselves or come together as a group.”The Grotto is a personal reflection spot for senior Vincent Burns, who said he visits almost exclusively by himself to offer up individual prayer. “I would be very flattered if someone asked me to go to the Grotto with them because I think that’s a testament to the degree of openness with that person,” he said. “I, personally, would only invite my very closest friends to join me at the Grotto if I were going on my own initiative and not part of a group. I do think generally people treat the Grotto as … a place where personal prayer is of the utmost.” In the solitude, though, many students find a sense of community. Saint Mary’s first-year student Casey Kochniarczyk said the candles that other people have lit create a sense of solidarity.“You see all the prayers that other people are praying for, so you kind of know that you’re not alone and you’re not the only person facing things,” she said. “I usually pray for all the other people who’ve lit a candle or come here to pray that are facing their own problems.” Barrett said at the end of his freshman year, he invited fellow members of the Band of the Fighting Irish to join him at the Grotto at the onset of finals week. “I expected 10 or 12 people to come, but I think the first time there were 85 people that all came,” he said. “And we all met at midnight the night before the first day of finals and stood around in a group, prayed together, hugged each other and did finals week. “And it was just such a powerful thing, realizing this is Notre Dame and this is the Grotto.”  A place of refugeAt night, the Grotto becomes quiet.The candles shimmer softly, illuminating the darkness.People perch shoulder-to-shoulder on the kneeler, lost in their hopes, their anxieties, their prayers.Some nights, many visitors come at once. Other evenings, they trickle in slowly, converging from all corners of campus to spend time in silence.On a warm Saturday night in April, junior Kat Stultz visited the Grotto to strengthen her sense of perspective. “Right now, I’m wrestling with this crush that I have on somebody. It sounds silly,” she said. “But … when you walk into the area where all the candles are lit, it completely takes me out of myself and helps me to remember that there are so many people out there that have so many more struggles than I do — not in a comparative way, but just remembering to pray for them and to recognize that you don’t have to worry so much about what’s going on in your life.”For Stultz, the Grotto is a place to escape the noise of daily realities. She said it enables her to step back and to remember what she believes is truly important. “It’s often a place where I can go when I’m either confused about something or just need to look to Our Lady for a little bit of help,” Stultz said. “I think it can be a great place of refuge for students, whether it’s stress about a test or confusion about a relationship, or really anything that college students go through.”  One time, Stultz said, she was praying the Rosary on a bench at the Grotto when she felt a connection between her reflection and her life at Notre Dame.“I happened to be on the Visitation, where Mary meets Elizabeth and there’s that beautiful moment between them,” she said. “As I’m praying and I look up, my friend Colleen, … one of her friends came at her from the side and just gave her a big hug. And I felt in that moment that that mystery of the Rosary just came to life at the Grotto.”While stopping by the Grotto on the night before taking an exam, freshman James Sigman thought back to when he visited the site with upperclassmen from his residence hall during First Year Orientation. The older students were joking around as they led the freshmen on a run around campus, Sigman said, but they took on a more sincere tone when they reached the Grotto. “It’s just so cool to see how seriously the student body takes the Grotto, and I think it’s what sets Notre Dame apart completely,” Sigman said. “It means a lot to me that they have a place like this.” Tags: Grotto, Notre Dame, peace, prayerlast_img read more

IEA: China, U.S. account for 50% of global wind capacity, 46% of solar

first_img FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享ReNews.biz:China continues to be the world’s largest producer of renewable power from wind as well as solar photovoltaics, according to the International Energy Agency’s Key World Energy Statistics report, released on Thursday. The country accounts for 28.7% of global wind production, supplied by an installed capacity of 184GW, and 31.9% of global solar production, from an installed base of 175GW.The IEA’s Key World Energy Statistics report has used data from 2018 to compile its figures.The US is the world’s second largest producer of both wind and solar, IEA’s KWES figures found. The country accounts for 21.7% of global wind production, from an installed capacity of 94.5GW. The US accounts for 14.7% of global solar production, supplied by an installed capacity of 62.5GW.Germany is the world’s third largest wind producer, the statistics found, accounting for 8.6% of the global total, from an installed capacity of 59GW. India is the world’s fourth largest producer of wind-generated electricity, accounting for 5%, generated by an installed base of 35GW.Japan is the world’s third largest producer of solar PV electricity, the study found, accounting for 11.3% of the global solar PV total, supplied by an installed base of 56GW. The KWES report found Germany is the world’s fourth largest producer of solar PV electricity, accounting for 8.3%, from an installed capacity of 45GW.More: China dominates global wind and solar output IEA: China, U.S. account for 50% of global wind capacity, 46% of solarlast_img read more

Destination Adventure: Shenandoah County Spirits Trail

first_imgIt’s no secret that The Northern Shenandoah Valley is a haven for the great outdoors whether you like hiking and canoeing in rural areas, strolling the downtown streets of our small cities, or taking in the vast history of our region. Whatever adventure you choose, there are places to stop along the way where local agriculture meets the fine tastes of handcrafted wines, beer, cider and distilled spirits. With 27 locally owned establishments in the region and many that grow their own ingredients, it’s easy to sip your way through the region while enjoying the ultimate path to beverage enlightenment.last_img