Examination of a physically based, high-resolution, distributed Arctic temperature-index melt model, on Midtre Lovénbreen, Svalbard

first_imgImprovements in our ability to model runoff from glaciers remain an important scientific goal. This paper describes a new temperature-radiation-index glacier melt model specifically enhanced for use in High-Arctic environments, utilising high temporal and spatial resolution datasets while retaining relatively modest data requirements. The model employs several physically constrained parameters and was tuned using a lidar-derived surface elevation model of Midtre Lovénbreen, meteorological data from sites spanning ~70% of the glacier’s area-altitude distribution and periodic ablation surveys during the 2005 melt season. The model explained 80% of the variance in observed ablation across the glacier, an improvement of ~40% on a simplified energy balance model (EBM), yet equivalent to the performance of a full EBM employed at the same location. Model performance was assessed further by comparing potential and measured runoff from the catchment and through application to an earlier (2004) melt season. The additive model form and consideration of a priori parameters for the Arctic locality were shown to be beneficial, with a planimetry correction eliminating systematic errors in potential runoff. Further parameterisations defining modelled incident radiation failed to yield significant improvements to model output. Our results suggest that such enhanced melt models may perform well for singular melt seasons, yet are highly sensitive to the choice of lapse rates, and their transferability to different locations and seasons may be limited. While modelling ablation requires detailed consideration of the transition between snow and ice melt, our study suggests that description of the ratio between radiative and turbulent heat fluxes may provide a useful step towards dynamic parameterisation of melt factors in temperature-index models.last_img read more


first_imgFacebookTwitterCopy LinkEmailShare We hope that today’s “IS IT TRUE” will provoke honest and open dialogue concerning issues that we, as responsible citizens of this community, need to address in a rational and responsible way?IS IT TRUE according to Indy Star columnist Matthew Tully his colleagues ”Kaitlin L. Lange and Tony Cook laid it all out last week in an article that told of Republican House Speaker Brian Bosma giving what should be called the “Legalized Loan Shark Legislation” a push on its way to a narrow victory in the House”?  … it’s been alleged if this bill is passed by both Chambers that House Bill 1319 would allow annual interest rates on some loans to roughly triple, to a mind-boggling 222 percent.?IS IT TRUE  if the “Payday Lending” bill passes the Indiana State Senate it would increase interest rates by leaps and bounds on some of our most vulnerable residents? …House Bill 1319 now goes to the Indiana State Senate for consideration and we are told that it may have a hard time passing? …we are told that the four (4) local State Representatives voted “Yes” for this “Predatory Loan” bill was Wendy McNamara, Ron Beacon, Tom Washburne and Hollie Sullivan? …that State Representative Ryan Hatfield voted “no” on this bill?…we are extremely disappointed that members of the local media haven’t picked up on this “Predatory Loan Legislation” issue that seemly might hurt the most economically vulnerable among us? … that State Representative Wendy McNamara was a co-author of this bill?Below is the Link to House Bill 1319 Roll Call vote for your review.https://iga.in.gov/static-documents/c/0/6/5/c065d690/HB1319.113.pdfAttached below is the link to House Bill 1319 for your review.                          https://iga.in.gov/legislative/2018/bills/house/1319IS IT TRUE recently the Indiana Department of Revenue’s Tax Advisory Council convened behind closed doors for its inaugural quarterly meeting? … the Advisory Council was created in December of 2017?  …the group’s mission is to “shape the future of tax administration by providing input regarding agency operations, policies and legislative proposals,” according to the department?  …we are highly disappointed that not one individual appointed to this Advisory Council is from this area?IS IT TRUE we wonder how many members of the Evansville City Council are aware that the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990 protects people with orthopedic, visual, speech and hearing impairments issues?IS IT TRUE  we wonder if the unreasonable “3-minute Governmental Censorship” rule imposed two (2) years ago by former Evansville City Council President Missy Mosby (D) could be something that members of the “Indivisible Evansville” group should address?IS IT TRUE we wonder if City Council will provide an interpreter for those attending Council meeting who have a major hearing problem or may be deaf that want to address the Council about a city issue? …we also wonder if Council President Jim Brinkmeyer (D) will impose the unreasonable “3-minute Governmental Censorship” rule when a hearing impaired persons address Council?IS IT TRUE we wonder how Council President Jim Brinkmeyer (D) would handle a request from persons who have a speaking challenge because they have a serious studdering problem? …we wonder if Mr. Brinkmeyer (D) will impose the unreasonable “3-minute Governmental Censorship” rule on them when they address Council?IS IT TRUE if a Civil Rights attorney who is well versed on the end and outs of the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990 made a presentation on this subject would City Council President Jim Brinkmeyer (D) cut him off from speaking on this highly complexed legal subject after three (3) minutes?IS IT TRUE last year the uber-entrepreneur founder of Tesla, Solar City, and Space X, Elon Musk tweeted that he suffers from bi-polar conditions?…Musk went on to discuss in short bursts how he enjoys the extreme highs but also has to deal with the depressive lows?… according to scientific studies genius and insanity may actually go together according to scientists who found that mental illnesses like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are often found in highly creative and intelligent people?…Elon is in the company of some highly intelligent and impactful people with his self-diagnosis including Ludvig von Beethoven, Vincent van Gogh, mathematician John Nash, media mogul Ted Turner, Congressman Patrick Kennedy, author Ernest Hemingway, entrepreneur Rene Rivkin, and a plethora of luminaries from the fields of entertainment including Kurt Cobain, Ben Stiller, Britney Spears, Frank Sinatra, and Marilyn Monroe?…technology entrepreneurs Steve Jobs of Apple, Larry Ellison of Oracle, and Bill Gates of Microsoft all have exhibited symptoms of bi-polar disorder at some stage of their lives?…Elon Musk personally acknowledged the level of stress he is under as CEO of three large companies and the City-County Observer wishes him peace, serenity, and profitability?…visionaries who can make things happen at a profit while creating jobs and wealth for regular people are few and far between?…most of us cannot even imagine the anguish that comes to the mind of people who truly aspire to greatness?Todays “Readers Poll” question is: Do you feel that Indiana House Bill 1319 will be economically hurtful to the most vulnerable among us?Please take time and read our articles entitled “STATEHOUSE Files, CHANNEL 44 NEWS, LAW ENFORCEMENT, READERS POLL, BIRTHDAYS, HOT JOBS” and “LOCAL SPORTS”.  You now are able to subscribe to get the CCO daily.If you would like to advertise on the CCO please contact us City-County [email protected]’S FOOTNOTE:  Any comments posted in this column do not represent the views or opinions of the City-County Observer or our advertisers.last_img read more

Sainsbury’s to close £1.4m bakery college facility in London

first_imgSource: Getty ImagesSainsbury’s has announced a restructuring plan that will involve the closure of its bakery college facility in east London after just four years.The supermarket giant said the college would continue at an undisclosed location near its present site in Bromley-by-Bow.The £1.4m facility was opened in January 2017 with the capacity to train up to 600 staff annually in practical baking and managerial skills.However, Sainsbury’s has now announced its intention to close the Online Fulfilment Centre (OFC) that houses the college along with the supermarket chain’s food lab.The restructuring plan, which is currently under consultation, also includes reduction of office space elsewhere in London as well as Manchester, Milton Keynes and Coventry, resulting in the loss of approximately 500 jobs.Sainsbury’s said the savings created will be invested back into its core food business.“Our new plan puts food first and will create a simpler, nimbler and more efficient business,” said Simon Roberts, Sainsbury’s chief executive. “The money we save will enable us to invest in what customers really care about – lower prices, exciting new products and the most convenient ways for them to shop.“I know change is difficult, but to do the best job we can for our customers, it is vital that we adapt. I understand this will be a very difficult time for affected colleagues and we will do everything we can to fully support them,” Roberts added.The Sainsbury’s bakery college in Bromley-by-Bow, which is twice the size of its predecessor in Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, was hailed as ‘the only one of its type in the UK retail sector’ upon its opening in 2017.One of seven food colleges opened by the company since 2010, its courses were designed to ‘attract people with the ambition to make the grade as a top-class professional baker’.Shortly after the opening of the facility Ruth Jennings, group apprenticeship qualifications manager for Sainsbury’s, said the retailer was “seeing fantastic results from all of the colleagues who have completed courses”.last_img read more

Stages of bloom

first_imgThe Rafflesiaceae family of plants has many identities — producer of the largest flowers in the world, for one, with some specimens measuring a meter or more in diameter. They’re also known as “corpse flowers” because they give off an overwhelming odor of rotting flesh to attract pollinating insects. In their native Southeast Asia, they’re sometimes called the “jewel of Borneo” and are celebrated as a cultural touchstone and beacon for the conservation of the tropical rain forest.For scientists like Charles Davis, a professor of organismic and evolutionary biology, however, the plants have — until now — largely been known for their mysterious nature.The plants were described some 200 years ago, but botanists had been unable to answer many basic questions about them, particularly how those huge flowers develop. Using a combination of traditional methods and modern genetic testing to compare two closely related members of the family, Rafflesia and Sapria, a team of Harvard researchers — Davis, Lachezar Nikolov, a recent Ph.D. student in Davis’ lab, and Elena Kramer, the Bussey Professor of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology — is helping to provide key insights. The research, in collaboration with colleagues from Switzerland, Malaysia, and Thailand, is described in a paper published online Oct. 28 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.“What I think is most striking is that these two plants, which look nearly identical, are built in fundamentally different ways,” Davis said. “Rafflesia have been described for almost 200 years, by some of the best morphologists, but the basic understanding of their floral organs was not known until now.”Outwardly, Davis said, Sapria and Rafflesia produce nearly identical chamber-shaped blossoms. They are characterized by similar structures — each includes a number of outer “lobes” resembling petals on flowers, with a center dominated by a domelike structure, called a diaphragm, that encloses a central disk containing the plant’s reproductive structures. One of the few outward contrasts between Rafflesia and Sapria, Davis said, is the number of lobes — Sapria has 10 or more, Rafflesia just five.A closer look, however, revealed vast differences in structures that appear very similar.Careful inspection using traditional microscopy and cutting-edge genetic methods performed first in Sapria showed that it is constructed like many flowers. The lobes on its outer ring are the plant’s sepals — the outermost part that forms a flower — while the inner lobes are petals. Perhaps most importantly, Davis said, tests showed that the diaphragm is a separate structure.In Rafflesia, meanwhile, researchers found something distinctly different that provided a breakthrough.  “Like Sapria, we think the single outer lobes are sepals,” Davis said. “When we look at Rafflesia in the early stages of development, however, the petals are very different. We find that they have become fused to form the diaphragm. No one had ever looked carefully at this early stage of Rafflesia development to connect these outer lobes to sepals, and the inner lobes to the bizarre diaphragm structure.”Researchers also uncovered a novel ringlike organ, distinct from the petals and sepals, that circled the inside of both plants. This type of organ is what gives daffodils their trumpets, and passionflowers their crowns. In Rafflesia, Davis said, the structure was prominent early in the plant’s development, but never developed beyond that point. By contrast, the structure was found to be critical in Sapria, where it expands dramatically to form the inner walls of the flower’s chamber and its domelike diaphragm.The results were so surprising, Davis said, that he initially didn’t believe them.“It was hard to imagine,” he said. “These plants look very similar, yet they’re built in fundamentally different ways.”While the study sheds new light on how these plants develop, Davis said it may also help to explain how Rafflesia in particular attained such huge flowers. “Among a very large flowered group of plants, Rafflesia’s have the biggest flowers of them all!” Davis says.“Based on what we know about the development of other, related plants, we believe Sapria represents the more ancestral pattern of construction,” Davis said. “If you look at the evolution of Rafflesia, which contains the biggest flowers within the family, we see a major burst in floral size, so it may be that this re-architecture is what allowed these plants to become even larger.”last_img read more

Notre Dame student starts non-profit benefitting South Sudan

first_imgIn 2005, Majak Anyieth left his family behind in South Sudan to go to Kenya in pursuit of an education. When he returned eight years later, he found that little had improved in his home country in terms of educational opportunities. Traditional conflicts between neighboring communities were still in full play — but Anyieth, having spent eight years in a different country, had realized that conflict wasn’t always unavoidable.“I learn(ed) from my experience in Kenya that I could live harmoniously with people from other communities … I had been taught otherwise growing up,” Anyieth, now a junior at Notre Dame, said in an email.Motivated by his experiences, Anyieth started Education Bridge, a non-profit aimed at creating educational opportunities and lessening violence in South Sudan.“Education Bridge is a non-profit organization that is striving to promote peace and education in South Sudan,” Anyieth said. “We organize week-long seminars for teaching high school students nonviolent conflict resolution skills, teamwork, negotiation and other entrepreneurial skills. In so doing, we also invite students to learn about other communities and challenge many stereotypes that fuel inter-communal conflict in the country.”According to Anyieth, in the past Education Bridge has run conflict resolution seminars as well as a campaign titled “I Need Peace.” The campaign aimed to “help voice the will of ordinary people who are suffering the consequences of a recent conflict that left 2.5 million people displaced and many thousands dead.”Anyieth noted that illiteracy and “traditional hostilities” have led to many young South Sudanese citizens becoming involved in intertribal conflict and other forms of violence. Subsequently, Education Bridge works to confront two major issues within the country: education and violence.“South Sudan has one of the lowest literacy levels in the world, merely at 27 percent,” Anyieth said, “That of girls is even worse at 16 percent. The lack of education means lack of human capital in the country. No health systems. 51 percent of the country lives below poverty line. Because of illiteracy and economic struggles, there is a lot of violence involving cattle raiding and other disputes. We believe education can open a door for a more peaceful and prosperous country … It is for this reason that we are doing everything we can to provide educational opportunities for young South Sudanese. We hope in so doing, we will not lose another generation to illiteracy, poverty and violence.”Education Bridge is currently working on constructing a secondary school in Bor, South Sudan. Once completed in January 2017, the school will provide much-needed educational opportunities to 200 students and, Anyieth hopes, “inter-communal dialogues … providing them with educational opportunities but also with a chance to learn about other communities; deconstructing stereotypes and highlighting our oneness.” The school will employ the nonviolent conflict-resolution seminars previously developed by Education Bridge.“I was awarded the Dalai Lama fellowship last year, which provided us with some funding to help start the project,” Anyieth said, “Right now, we are fundraising the remaining funds to help finish our school construction this summer and to help organize teacher training in preparation for opening in January 2017. We need $15,000 to finish everything.”“We have also started partnering with different organizations like Mercy Beyond Borders, which will be providing scholarships to some of our students from poor families. Though it causes only $300 to attend school for one year, not many families can afford [it]. These scholarships will also be critical to promoting girls’ education, as many families are hesitant to invest in girls’ education for cultural reasons.”Students who wish to help can donate unwanted books to Education Bridge’s book drive, or donate to school-building efforts.“I [hope] that through Education Bridge, I can mobilize a group of like-minded people, to put our time and energy into changing the fate of our community by creating educational opportunities and rethinking how we tell our stories to foster a created of a more united country,” Anyieth said. Tags: education, Education Bridge, Non-profit, south sudanlast_img read more

Engineering pointers

first_imgBy Stephanie SchupskaUniversity ofGeorgiaA college degree doesn’t guarantee a job. It may take months for graduating students to find employment, unless they’re willing to take a harder course load, invest time in internships and talk themselves up at career fairs.This is true even of fields such as engineering. Companies look for graduates who can slide easily into the work force.The University of Georgia Faculty of Engineering recently hosted companies represented mostly by UGA engineering alumni. Several had tips on how students can stand out from other job applicants.”Obviously, they’re technically capable,” Jim Tiller said of UGA engineering students. “We’re looking for people who can fit in well in a professional environment, who dress nice for work, who have professional etiquette, who are creative people.”Several of the companies at the Nov. 8 career fair offer internships. Tiller was an intern for CertainTeed Insulation before they hired him as an electrical-mechanical project engineer after graduation from UGA in 2004. He pointed out why internships are so important.”You get a good idea if engineering is right for you. You find out what aspects of engineering you want to pursue,” he said.”Obviously, you earn money while you’re in school,” he said. “The pay is much better than delivering pizza. And you gain experience. If you don’t get any experience, you haven’t learned a lot of the little things you need to develop into a professional.”Internships enable companies to screen future employees. “It gives us the opportunity to check people out,” said Bobbi Carter, who works under the ecology branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in Athens. She graduated from UGA several years ago with a degree in forestry.The EPA has a specific federal career intern program specifically for students within nine months of graduation. “It gives students loads of experience,” Carter said. “We have a lot of hiring successes because of the program.””Our company, when they hire, looks for engineers,” said Brandon Marlow, a manufacturing engineer for Rockwell Automation. “It doesn’t matter what career — everybody knows how to do everybody else’s job.”Companies are hiring more engineers because the U.S. industry has seen an economic upturn, said Marlow, who graduated from UGA in 2000.”There’s an increased demand for engineers, period,” said Cary Nagler of B.P. Barber & Associates Inc.But getting hired isn’t a cake-walk. “The business environment is so different” than it was a few years ago, said Casey Adams, an engineer with Eaton who graduated from UGA in 2002. “You have to have stuff outside of that degree, a higher level of degree, maybe an MBA, to take yourself to the next level. It’s so competitive out there.”Companies are looking increasingly at the UGA engineering program, said Tim Foutz, a professor and undergraduate engineering program coordinator in the UGA College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences.”Our degrees (in biological and agricultural engineering) are designed to provide a basic engineering education, to instill engineering as a way of thinking,” Foutz said. “That’s why we have so many students employed, because they have such a broad perspective.”A few years ago, he said, a Macon company discovered UGA’s engineering program. “Now they hire nothing but our students, because they’ve got enough of a background, a fundamental education,” he said. “Our guys can maneuver from project to project.”At UGA, engineering students get balanced experience across several engineering fields. That gives them a versatility that’s increasingly rare in engineering.”According to national data, engineering and technical jobs are increasing at five times the rate of any other work force,” Foutz said. “A lot of current engineers are reaching retirement age. Plus, the United States imports 12-15 percent of its engineers, and Georgia is at the lead of that trend. The demand for engineers is there.”(Stephanie Schupska is a news editor with the University ofGeorgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences.)last_img read more

Damascus, Va.

first_imgPopulation: 814Public lands: Mt. Rogers National Recreation Area, Grayson Highlands State Park, Backbone Rock Recreation Area, Cherokee National ForestOutdoor Highlights: Virginia Creeper Trail, Appalachian Trail, Iron Mountain Trail, Whitetop Mountain, Holston River, Whitetop Laurel, Beaverdam Creek, Mt. Rogerslast_img

Colombian Armed Forces Ignorant of Fate of FARC Supreme Leader

first_img The Colombian armed forces admitted Thursday that they are ignorant of the fate of Alfonso Cano, the highest-ranking leader of the FARC guerrilla group, following rumors of his death in a bombardment. “It is the case that the Colombian armed forces have been carrying out intensive and permanent military operations throughout the national territory against the leaders and structures of the various terrorist and criminal organizations,” the general commander of the armed forces, Freddy Padilla, indicated in an official statement. Nevertheless, he clarified that “in the particular case of the terrorist alias Alfonso Cano, at present no information is available regarding his fate.” Cano became the highest-ranking leader of the leftist Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia in 2008, after the group’s founder, Manuel Marulanda, ‘Tirofijo,’ died of natural causes. The Colombian authorities presume that for the last several months Cano has been in the jungle region of southern Colombia, where intensive military operations are underway. The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) — against which Colombian president Alvaro Uribe has focused his security policy — are the oldest guerrilla group in the country, with more than forty years of armed struggle, and are estimated to have around 7,500 fighters, according to Defense Ministry figures. Early Thursday morning, Radio Caracol reported “rumors” about the death of the FARC supreme leader, a report the broadcaster subsequently retracted, citing a source on the Colombian president’s staff. By Dialogo July 12, 2010last_img read more

Risk Management: How hungry are you?

first_imgI like being “on time.” I like other people who like to be on time. It shocks me that tardiness is not one of the seven deadly sins.I think that could be an oversight.But how do I manage the risk of being late? Before I can even begin to manage this, I need to measure my appetite for being on time.Business meetings: I am very risk adverse, bordering on zero-tolerance. Social meetings:  I am less risk adverse for parties. More risk adverse when meeting people for dinner at a restaurant.I’ll set two alarms the night before a big morning meeting at work. But I won’t crack the whip getting Kate and Briggs out the door for a birthday party. (The benefit of being on time doesn’t outweigh having a calm day without arguments.)And in any event, I’d never put anyone’s safety at risk (driving dangerously fast) to be on time, even for a work event. continue reading » 17SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblrlast_img read more

How to use prepaid cards to expand your credit union’s market share

first_img 3SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr,Naomi Anderson Naomi Anderson is Vice President of Prepaid for LSC. In her current role, her team manages the day to day program support, customer service functions and implementations as well as … Web: Lsc.net Details Successful business growth starts with offering the right product or service for your audience’s needs. In the financial services market, the versatility and convenience of prepaid cards make them a great way for credit unions to break the ice and start new member relationships or grow current ones. Below are four strategies to help your credit union take full advantage of a prepaid program and grow market share.Market DevelopmentThis strategy is for credit unions already offering a prepaid card program and involves using current prepaid offerings to reach new audiences. Where are some good markets to start? One of the fastest growing markets is the Hispanic market. An ICUL sponsored study by Coopera shows Hispanics make up 20% of the U.S. population, growing 83% since 2000. Hispanic Market Facts from Coopera:Hispanic households have the second-highest expected lifetime spending of all U.S. ethnicities.Family-based spending on items like food and clothing is greatest among Hispanics. As a popular budgeting tool, prepaid cards are a relevant offering to this promising market and can help credit unions build loyal members among them.Prepaid cards are also a great venue for reaching new, younger demographics. Parents often use these cards to teach children financial responsibility. Prepaid programs with mobile services are particularly attractive to tech-savvy young people looking to have total access to card information on the go.Product DevelopmentIf you’re not already offering a prepaid product, now would be a good time to start. With the game-changer of COVID-19, cashless payment methods are becoming more popular. Prepaid cards can help credit unions better serve their current members. Members can use prepaid cards to budget long-term or special occasion spending, receive tax refunds, and go cashless without incurring interest rates or risking account information. Credit unions offering gift cards also become an easy one-stop shop for members during the holidays or for any special occasion.Market PenetrationPrepaid cards sporting a credit union’s logo create a strong branding opportunity. Branded gift cards are particularly effective marketing tools since members may share them with non-members, growing awareness. By offering this popular product, credit unions can also be more competitive in the financial services market. Promoting prepaid cards through your website, emails, social media, or events can draw in more sign-ups from people looking for special occasion gifts or the convenience of reloadable prepaid cards.DiversificationIf you don’t have a prepaid program, but would like to grow in new markets, you can diversify your product offerings and add on a prepaid program to offer in that new market. You may want to seek operational and marketing support from a service partner to make this launch successful.SummaryTo achieve growth, credit unions can choose from many strong strategies. These strategies are most impactful when combined with an offering that meets an audience’s needs. For credit unions, prepaid cards are a powerful way to achieve this balance and grow market share.Are you ready to take full advantage of a quality prepaid program to grow your credit union’s business? LSC has been a trusted credit union partner for over 50 years. To learn what LSC can do for your credit union, contact the LSC sales department at 1-800-942-7124.last_img read more